Mahasiswa Menggugat Gerakan Aksi Mahasiswa Menggugat, Action Movement for Student Demands, formed in to coordinate student protests against state corruption and economic mismanagement. It has not been submitted for qualifications at any other academic institution. Active and passive sentences, nominalisation and abstraction are also used to foreground the positive actions and strengths of the regime or to deemphasise weaknesses or failures Eriyanto , In many anti-nuclear jokes, they suggest, the surface level of meaning is pro-nuclear. Almost 70 per cent of the population, or over million people, were aged under 34 Visi , 24 and 8.
Their aims were usually expressed in terms of improving ties between Dutch secondary and vocational school students from the same ethnic group and fostering an appreciation of their traditional cultures and languages see Martha , 46 and 49; Biro Pemuda , 32 and 38; Tomasoa , 25 and Mahasiswa Menggugat Gerakan Aksi Mahasiswa Menggugat, Action Movement for Student Demands, formed in to coordinate student protests against state corruption and economic mismanagement. The relationship between text and discourse, however, is a complex one since different and even conflicting discourses may be realised in a particular text Kress b, 27 and 29; see also Fairclough and Wodak , The student press provided those who contributed to it as well as their audiences with a forum in which to reflect on their roles and identities. Additional material in microform format was purchased by the author from the Cornell University Library. The acronym for the Indonesian civil servants association, Korpri Korps Pegawai Republik Indonesia , for example, was said to stand for koruptor pribumi corrupt Indonesian official. Analyses of New Order Indonesia in the s and s drew attention to three main processes by which the state maintained its dominance over society.
PERAN PEMUDA DALAM PERUBAHAN POLITIK & KETATANEGARAAN DI IND by Fitri Pebriani on Prezi
The result was an increasing concentration of power at the highest levels and, in particular, in the person of the president Mackie and MacIntyre; see also Crouch This study is thus one of the first to consider in detail the linguistic aspects of opposition and resistance to the New Order.
The demonstrations of in which university students, acting in their role as mahasiswa, had been a central force, had demonstrated to the new regime that a mahasiswa identity which legitimated such demonstrations was potentially destabilising see also Ryter There are also a number of ways in which these two mediums might be combined, for example in a formal speech, which is written to be spoken aloud Halliday33; Halliday78; Halliday and Hasan Given this relationship, what is the place of text-based analysis in discourse analysis?
In this view, discourses are constructed from combinations of both prior and contemporary discourses which are in turn derived from the conditions of past and present social structures. The concept of a partnership was criticised by later generations of student activists, who felt that the students had been exploited by the army for its own purposes Aspinall31; also Mangiang ; Simandjuntak ; Simbolon The student demonstrations of and were a significant and very visible factor in two leadership transitions.
Within any social group there are a number of discourses, because a number of significant institutions operate within any one social group.
This network is made up of the series pwlajar other contemporary texts of which a text forms a part, past texts to which a text refers, either implicitly or explicitly, as well as the texts which will follow98; see also Fairclough Pancasila the five principles which form trtiura basis of the Indonesian state: One of the mechanisms through which government operates is discipline. Power, he argues, operates by directing the behaviour and actions of others in ways which are conducive to the interests of those exercising power Foucault a; Barker Virginia and Ed also provided pelajaar with opportunities to try my hand at teaching.
The different choices that speakers and writers make reveal their position in relation to particular ways of thinking and speaking about the world. To the extent that social groups are made up of individuals, however, group identity is not homogenous.
Throughout the speeches the key values of the New Order – prosperity, stability and continuity- are reinforced through the repetition of key phrases and the standardised structure alsi the speeches themselves. To this end, the policy provided a comprehensive program of activities see Kansil The analysis of interpersonal meaning is concerned with describing the patterns of mood, modality, and person in a text.
The schools and trityra set up by the Dutch attracted young people from villages and towns throughout the archipelago. He also recognises the role of social subjects in the pelajjar of power: The pemuda style reflected what Lucas and others have identified as a rejection of hierarchy and a cultivation of oneness with the people, which was and important part of nationalist ideology in Indonesia from the s Lucas Jessie was my constant companion through all stages of the research and without her my sanity might not have remained intact!
One of the stated aims of CDA is to reveal the underlying reasons for the particular representations or qksi that speakers and writers make from this language system Fowler; see also below.
While the Dutch terms leerlingen pupil, secondary school student and student university or college student distinguished between students in different levels of education, the s was the first time this distinction was drawn in Malay Indonesian.
One of the key priorities of the policy was the creation of more educational opportunities for indigenous Indonesians, including primary and secondary education Lee4; see also Nagazumi Critical discourse analyses have tended to focus on the language of the powerful with the result that analysis pelajwr resistance to the exercise of power and to the discourses of those in authority has been somewhat neglected.
As Foucault essau in The archaeology of knowledge, a text is part of a complex network of other texts. Opposition is represented as a threat to these values and Suharto himself as both the mentor of the nation and its protector and guide Langston2.
I also owe enormous thanks to Ed Aspinall, who encouraged me to tackle this project in the first place and supported me throughout my candidature.
Thus, like the youth of the regional youth organisations, the pemuda of the revolution also saw their role in relation to the rakyat as one of leadership and defence. Yet the limitations of the critical discourse analysis method also apply to this study. This study aims to add to the understanding of the politics of student identity in Indonesia during the New Order.
Exploring political cultures in Indonesia Anderson b. These have been undertaken both by Indonesian and non-Indonesian scholars.